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Coding a Workflow

In code, Workflow is a Swift protocol or Kotlin interface with State, Rendering and Output parameter types. The Kotlin interface also defines a Props type. In Swift, props are implicit as properties of the struct implementing Workflow.

public protocol Workflow: AnyWorkflowConvertible {

    associatedtype State

    associatedtype Output = Never

    associatedtype Rendering

    func makeInitialState() -> State

    func workflowDidChange(from previousWorkflow: Self, state: inout State)

    func render(state: State, context: RenderContext<Self>) -> Rendering

abstract class StatefulWorkflow<in PropsT, StateT, out OutputT : Any, out RenderingT> :
    Workflow<PropsT, OutputT, RenderingT> {

  abstract fun initialState(
    props: PropsT,
    initialSnapshot: Snapshot?
  ): StateT

  open fun onPropsChanged(
    old: PropsT,
    new: PropsT,
    state: StateT
  ): StateT = state

  abstract fun render(
    props: PropsT,
    state: StateT,
    context: RenderContext<StateT, OutputT>
  ): RenderingT

  abstract fun snapshotState(state: StateT): Snapshot
Swift: What is AnyWorkflowConvertible?

When a protocol has an associated Self type, Swift requires the use of a type-erasing wrapper to store references to instances of that protocol. AnyWorkflow is such a wrapper for Workflow. AnyWorkflowConvertible is a protocol with a single method that returns an AnyWorkflow. It is useful as a base type because it allows instances of Workflow to be used directly by any code that requires the type-erased AnyWorkflow.

Kotlin: StatefulWorkflow vs Workflow

It is a common practice in Kotlin to divide types into two parts: an interface for public API, and a class for private implementation. The Workflow library defines a Workflow interface, which should be used as the type of properties and parameters by code that needs to refer to a particular Workflow interface. The Workflow interface contains a single method, which simply returns a StatefulWorkflow – a Workflow can be described as “anything that can be expressed as a StatefulWorkflow.”

The library also defines two abstract classes which define the contract for workflows and should be subclassed to implement your workflows:

Workflows have several responsibilities:

Workflows have state

Once a Workflow has been started, it always operates in the context of some state. This state is divided into two parts: private state, which only the Workflow implementation itself knows about, which is defined by the State type, and properties (or “props”), which is passed to the Workflow from its parent (more on hierarchical workflows below).

Private state

Every Workflow implementation defines a State type to maintain any necessary state while the workflow is running.

For example, a tic-tac-toe game might have a state like this:

struct State {

    enum Player {
        case x
        case o

    enum Space {
        case unfilled

    // 3 rows * 3 columns = 9 spaces
    var spaces: [Space] = Array(repeating: .unfilled, count: 9)
    var currentTurn: Player = .x
data class State(
  // 3 rows * 3 columns = 9 spaces
  val spaces: List<Space> = List(9) { Unfilled },
  val currentTurn: Player = X
) {

  enum class Player {
    X, O

  sealed class Space {
    object Unfilled : Space()
    data class Filled(val player: Player) : Space()

When the workflow is first started, it is queried for an initial state value. From that point forward, the workflow may advance to a new state as the result of events occurring from various sources (which will be covered below).

Stateless Workflows

If a workflow does not have any private state, it is often referred to as a “stateless workflow”. A stateless Workflow is simply a Workflow that has a Void or Unit State type. See more below.

Public Props

Every Workflow implementation also defines data that is passed into it. The Workflow is not able to modify this state itself, but it may change between render passes. This public state is called Props.

In Swift, the props are simply defined as properties of the struct implementing Workflow itself. In Kotlin, the Workflow interface defines a separate PropsT type parameter. (This additional type parameter is necessary due to Kotlin’s lack of the Self type that Swift workflow’s workflowDidChange method relies upon.)

data class Props(
  val playerXName: String
  val playerOName: String

Workflows are advanced by WorkflowActions

Any time something happens that should advance a workflow – a UI event, a network response, a child’s output event – actions are used to perform the update. For example, a workflow may respond to UI events by mapping those events into a type conforming to/implementing WorkflowAction. These types implement the logic to advance a workflow by:

  • Advancing to a new state
  • (Optionally) emitting an output event up the tree.

WorkflowActions are typically defined as enums with associated types (Swift) or sealed classes (Kotlin), and can include data from the event – for example, the ID of the item in the list that was clicked.

Side effects such as logging button clicks to an analytics framework are also typically performed in actions.

If you’re familiar with React/Redux, WorkflowActions are essentially reducers.

Workflows can emit output events up the hierarchy to their parent

When a workflow is advanced by an action, an optional output event can be sent up the workflow hierarchy. This is the opportunity for a workflow to notify its parent that something has happened (and the parent’s opportunity to respond to that event by dispatching its own action, continuing up the tree as long as output events are emitted).

Workflows produce an external representation of their state via Rendering

Immediately after starting up, or after a state transition occurs, a workflow will have its render method called. This method is responsible for creating and returning a value of type Rendering. You can think of Rendering as the “external published state” of the workflow, and the render function as a map of (Props + State + childrens’ Renderings) -> Rendering. While a workflow’s internal state may contain more detailed or comprehensive state, the Rendering (external state) is a type that is useful outside of the workflow. Because a workflow’s render method may be called by infrastructure for a variety of reasons, it’s important to not perform side effects when rendering — render methods must be idempotent. Event-based side effects should use Actions and state-based side effects should use Workers.

When building an interactive application, the Rendering type is commonly (but not always) a view model that will drive the UI layer.

Workflows can respond to UI events

The RenderContext that is passed into render as the last parameter provides some useful tools to assist in creating the Rendering value.

If a workflow is producing a view model, it is common to need an event handler to respond to UI events. The RenderContext has API to create an event handler, called a Sink, that when called will advance the workflow by dispatching an action back to the workflow (for more on actions, see below).

func render(state: State, context: RenderContext<DemoWorkflow>) -> DemoScreen {
    // Create a sink of our Action type so we can send actions back to the workflow.
    let sink = context.makeSink(of: Action.self)

    return DemoScreen(
        title: "A nice title",
        onTap: { sink.send(Action.refreshButtonTapped) }

Workflows form a hierarchy (they may have children)

As they produce a Rendering value, it is common for workflows to delegate some portion of that work to a child workflow. This is done via the RenderContext that is passed into the render method. In order to delegate to a child, the parent calls renderChild on the context, with the child workflow as the single argument. The infrastructure will spin up the child workflow (including initializing its initial state) if this is the first time this child has been used, or, if the child was also used on the previous render pass, the existing child will be updated. Either way, render will immediately be called on the child (by the Workflow infrastructure), and the resulting child’s Rendering value will be returned to the parent.

This allows a parent to return complex Rendering types (such as a view model representing the entire UI state of an application) without needing to model all of that complexity within a single workflow.

Workflow Identity

The Workflow infrastructure automatically detects the first time and the last subsequent time you’ve asked to render a child workflow, and will automatically initialize the child and clean it up. In both Swift and Kotlin, this is done using the workflow’s concrete type. Both languages use reflection to do this comparison (e.g. in Kotlin, the workflows’ KClasses are compared).

It is an error to render workflows of the same type more than once in the same render pass. Since type is used for workflow identity, the child rendering APIs take an optional string key to differentiate between multiple child workflows of the same type.

Workflows can subscribe to external event sources

If a workflow needs to respond to some external event source (e.g. push notifications), the workflow can ask the context to listen to those events from within the render method.

Swift vs Kotlin

In the Swift library, there is a special API for subscribing to hot streams (Signal in ReactiveSwift). The Kotlin library does not have any special API for subscribing to hot streams (channels), though it does have extension methods to convert ReceiveChannels, and RxJava Flowables and Observables, to Workers. The reason for this discrepancy is simply that we don’t have any uses of channels yet in production, and so we’ve decided to keep the API simpler. If we start using channels in the future, it may make sense to make subscribing to them a first-class API like in Swift.

Workflows can perform asynchronous tasks (Workers)

Workers are very similar in concept to child workflows. Unlike child workflows, however, workers do not have a Rendering type; they only exist to perform a single asynchronous task before sending zero or more output events back up the tree to their parent.

For more information about workers, see the Worker section below.

Workflows can be saved to and restored from a snapshot (Kotlin only)

On every render pass, each workflow is asked to create a “snapshot” of its state – a lazily-produced serialization of the workflow’s State as a binary blob. These Snapshots are aggregated into a single Snapshot for the entire workflow tree and emitted along with the root workflow’s Rendering. When the workflow runtime is started, it can be passed an optional Snapshot to restore the tree from. When non-null, the root workflow’s snapshot is extracted and passed to the root workflow’s initialState. The workflow can choose to either ignore the snapshot or use it to restore its State. On the first render pass, if the root workflow renders any children that were also being rendered when the snapshot was taken, those children’s snapshots are also extracted from the aggregate and used to initialize their states.

Why don’t Swift Workflows support snapshotting?

Snapshotting was built into Kotlin workflows specifically to support Android’s app lifecycle, which requires apps to serialize their current state before being backgrounded so that they can be restored in case the system needs to kill the hosting process. iOS apps don’t have this requirement, so the Swift library doesn’t need to support it.